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What does “Classification” mean? – Legal definition

Classification: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Classification” means: A classification system is a set of “boxes” into which things are sorted. Classifications are consistent, have unique classificatory principles, and are mutually exclusive. In AI design, when the output is one of a finite set of values (such as sunny,…

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What does “Federated Learning” mean? – Legal definition

Federated Learning: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Federated Learning” means: Federated learning is a machine learning model which addresses the problem of data governance and privacy by training algorithms collaboratively without transferring the data to another location. Each federated device shares its local model parameters instead of sharing the…

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What does “Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)” mean? – Legal definition

Generative Adversarial Network (GAN): According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)” means: Generative Adversarial Networks, or GANs for short, are an approach to generative modeling using deep learning methods, such as convolutional neural networks. Generative modeling is an unsupervised learning task in machine learning that involves automatically…

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What does “Human Values for AI” mean? – Legal definition

Human Values for AI: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Human Values for AI” means: Values are idealized qualities or conditions in the world that people find good. AI systems are not value-neutral. The incorporation of human values into AI systems requires that we identify whether, how, and what we…

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What does “Human-Centric AI” mean? – Legal definition

Human-Centric AI: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Human-Centric AI” means: An approach to AI that prioritizes human ethical responsibility, dynamic qualities, understanding, and meaning. It encourages the empowerment of humans in design, use, and implementation of AI systems. Human-Centric AI systems are built on the recognition of a meaningful…

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What does “Large Language Model (LLM)” mean? – Legal definition

Large Language Model (LLM): According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Large Language Model (LLM)” means: A class of language models that use deep-learning algorithms and are trained on extremely large textual datasets that can be multiple terabytes in size. LLMs can be classed into two types: generative or discriminatory. Generative…

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What does “Model” mean? – Legal definition

Model: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Model” means: A function that takes features as input and predicts labels as output. Typical phases of an AI model’s work flow are: Data collection and preparation, Model development, Model training, Model accuracy evaluation, Hyperparameters’ tuning, Model usage, Model maintenance, Model versioning.

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What does “Neural Network” mean? – Legal definition

Neural Network: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Neural Network” means: A computer system inspired by living brains, also known as artificial neural network, neural net, or deep neural net. It consists of two or more layers of neurons connected by weighted links with adjustable weights, which takes input data…

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What does “Socio-Technical System” mean? – Legal definition

Socio-Technical System: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Socio-Technical System” means: Technology is always part of society, just like society is always part of technology. This also means that one cannot understand one without the other. Technology is not only design and material appearance but also sociotechnical; that is, a…

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What does “Value Sensitive Design” mean? – Legal definition

Value Sensitive Design (Values-by-Design or Ethics-by-Design): According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Value Sensitive Design (Values-by-Design or Ethics-by-Design)” means: A theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and systematic manner throughout the design process.

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What does “Auditability of an AI System” mean? – Legal definition

Auditability of an AI System: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Auditability of an AI System” means: Auditability refers to the ability of an AI system to undergo the assessment of the system’s algorithms, data, and design processes. This does not necessarily imply that information about business models and Intellectual…

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What does “Standard” mean? – Legal definition

Standard: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, “Standards” are a set of institutionalized agreed-upon rules for the production of (textual or material) objects. They are released by international organizations and ensure quality and safety and set product or service specifications. Standards are the result of negotiations among various stakeholders and are institutionalized…

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What does “Accessibility” mean? – Legal definition

Accessibility: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Accessibility” means: Extent to which products, systems, services, environments, and facilities can be used by people from a population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics, and capabilities to achieve identified goals in identified contexts of use (which includes direct use or…

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What does “Accountability” mean? – Legal definition

Accountability: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Accountability” means: Accountability relates to an allocated responsibility. The responsibility can be based on regulation or agreement or through assignment as part of delegation. In a systems context, accountability refers to systems and/or actions that can be traced uniquely to a given entity….

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What does “AI Bias” mean? – Legal definition

AI (or Algorithmic) Bias: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “AI (or Algorithmic) Bias” means: Harmful AI bias describes systematic and repeatable errors in AI systems that create unfair outcomes, such as placing privileged groups at systematic advantage and unprivileged groups at systematic disadvantage. Different types of bias can emerge…

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What does “Chatbot” mean? – Legal definition

Chatbot (Conversational Bot): According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Chatbot (Conversational Bot)” means: A computer program designed to simulate conversation with a human user, usually over the internet; especially one used to provide information or assistance to the user as part of an automated service.

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