Skip to main content

What does “Model” mean? – Legal definition

Model: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Model” means: A function that takes features as input and predicts labels as output. Typical phases of an AI model’s work flow are: Data collection and preparation, Model development, Model training, Model accuracy evaluation, Hyperparameters’ tuning, Model usage, Model maintenance, Model versioning.

Read More

What does “Neural Network” mean? – Legal definition

Neural Network: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Neural Network” means: A computer system inspired by living brains, also known as artificial neural network, neural net, or deep neural net. It consists of two or more layers of neurons connected by weighted links with adjustable weights, which takes input data…

Read More

What does “Socio-Technical System” mean? – Legal definition

Socio-Technical System: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Socio-Technical System” means: Technology is always part of society, just like society is always part of technology. This also means that one cannot understand one without the other. Technology is not only design and material appearance but also sociotechnical; that is, a…

Read More

What does “Value Sensitive Design” mean? – Legal definition

Value Sensitive Design (Values-by-Design or Ethics-by-Design): According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Value Sensitive Design (Values-by-Design or Ethics-by-Design)” means: A theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and systematic manner throughout the design process.

Read More

What does “Auditability of an AI System” mean? – Legal definition

Auditability of an AI System: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Auditability of an AI System” means: Auditability refers to the ability of an AI system to undergo the assessment of the system’s algorithms, data, and design processes. This does not necessarily imply that information about business models and Intellectual…

Read More

What does “Standard” mean? – Legal definition

Standard: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, “Standards” are a set of institutionalized agreed-upon rules for the production of (textual or material) objects. They are released by international organizations and ensure quality and safety and set product or service specifications. Standards are the result of negotiations among various stakeholders and are institutionalized…

Read More

What does “Accessibility” mean? – Legal definition

Accessibility: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Accessibility” means: Extent to which products, systems, services, environments, and facilities can be used by people from a population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics, and capabilities to achieve identified goals in identified contexts of use (which includes direct use or…

Read More

What does “Accountability” mean? – Legal definition

Accountability: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Accountability” means: Accountability relates to an allocated responsibility. The responsibility can be based on regulation or agreement or through assignment as part of delegation. In a systems context, accountability refers to systems and/or actions that can be traced uniquely to a given entity….

Read More

What does “AI Bias” mean? – Legal definition

AI (or Algorithmic) Bias: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “AI (or Algorithmic) Bias” means: Harmful AI bias describes systematic and repeatable errors in AI systems that create unfair outcomes, such as placing privileged groups at systematic advantage and unprivileged groups at systematic disadvantage. Different types of bias can emerge…

Read More

What does “Chatbot” mean? – Legal definition

Chatbot (Conversational Bot): According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Chatbot (Conversational Bot)” means: A computer program designed to simulate conversation with a human user, usually over the internet; especially one used to provide information or assistance to the user as part of an automated service.

Read More

What does “Discrimination” mean? – Legal definition

Discrimination: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Discrimination” means: Unequal treatment of a person based on belonging to a category rather than on individual merit. Discrimination can be a result of societal, institutional, and implicitly held individual biases or attitudes that get captured in processes across the AI lifecycle, including…

Read More

What does “Evasion” mean? – Legal definition

Evasion: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Evasion” means: In Evasion Attacks, the adversary solves a constrained optimization problem to find a small input perturbation that causes a large change in the loss function and results in output misclassification.

Read More

What does “Feedback Loop” mean? – Legal definition

Feedback Loop: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Feedback Loop” means: Feedback loop describes the process of leveraging the output of an AI system and corresponding end-user actions in order to retrain and improve models over time. The AI-generated output (predictions or recommendations) are compared against the final decision (for…

Read More

What does “Harmful Bias” mean? – Legal definition

Harmful Bias: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Harmful Bias” means: Harmful bias can be either conscious or unconscious. Unconscious, also known as implicit bias, involves associations outside conscious awareness that lead to a negative evaluation of a person on the basis of characteristics such as race, gender, sexual orientation,…

Read More

What does “Human Rights Impact Assessment” mean? – Legal definition

Human Rights Impact Assessment: According to the first edition of the EU-U.S. terminology and taxonomy for artificial intelligence, the term “Human Rights Impact Assessment” means: A human rights impact assessment (HRIA) of AI identifies, understands, and assesses the impact of the AI system on human rights, such as but not limited to, the right to privacy or non-discrimination. AI systems…

Read More
it_IT